Sunday, April 11, 2010


Orchid is a member of Orchidaceae family is the largest and diverse family of the flowering plants (Angiospermae). There are at least 25,000 different species of orchids, with probably thousands more that remains unknown or unclassified. The Royal Botanical Gardens of Kew lists 800 genera and nearly 22,000 accepted species, but the exact number is unknown (perhaps as many as 25,000) because of taxonomic disputes. Horticulturists have also created over 100,000 hybrids for commercialization, as wild orchids are protected under various conservation laws.
It is estimated that about 1,300 species (140 genera) of orchids are found in India. Orchids from 9% of our flora and are the largest botanical family. The following is the distribution of orchid species in different regions of India.
*The North-Western Himalayas ca 200 species
*The North-Eastern India ca 800 species and
*The Western Ghats ca 300 species

Renanthera imshootiana or red vanda is one of the most rare and beautiful orchid in North East India.(Drawing from Botanical Journal,U.K.)

In Assam as many as 293 species of Orchids are reported which represent 44.39% of North East species and 24.42% of species occurring in India. Tropical wet evergreen forests of Lakhimpur district and it’s adjoining foot hills of Arunachal Pradesh is very much rich and more than hundreds of eye-catching and colorful wild orchids are seen to bloom throughout the year. For last 15 years I have been collecting wild orchids from different parts of Lakhimpur and Arunachal Pradesh. Here are some photographs of my own collection of wild orchids for you.I am very much thankful to Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia, where I have got lots of information on orchid world. Happy viewing !!!

                                        Rhyncostylists retusa-"Kopou Phul" in Assam.

                               Ryncostylists retusa
Found in North East and South India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia, Java and Philippines. The common name is "Fox Tail".It is also known as “Seeta Pushpa” in Sanskrit.The Inflorescence of Rhynchostylis retusa popularly known as ‘Kopou Phul’ in Assam is adorned by the ladies during ‘Rangali Bihu’ as ornamentation on their head. Flowers are pink with deep pink spot
.Flowering time : April-May.

Aerides odoratum
This beautiful waxy and fragrant flower is widespread through the western and eastern Himalayas, Assam, China, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Philippines. In India it is known as “Draupodi Pushpa”. The flowers are pinkish white or pale pink. This sun loving epiphyte orchid is found at elevations of 200 to 2000 meters of broadleaf evergreen lowland forest.
Flowering time : May-July.

                                  Eria fragrans
Found in North East India, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, New Guinea and Philippines in lowland semi tropical ever green forests. It is epiphyte or occasional lithophytes at elevations of sea level to 1200 meters. The flowers are white with light brownish shade. Star like flowers are sweetly fragrant
.Flowering Time :June – July.

                                             Dendrobium fimbriatum
This species is from eastern and western Himalayas, North East India, Hainan and southern China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos and Vietnam in humid forests of Tropical to Sub Tropical forest zone at elevation of 200-2400 meters It is a cool to warm growing epiphyte, lithophytes or terrestrial with pendulous yellow flower .Slightly scented flowers last for about 5-7 days.
Flowering time : March-May.

                                Arundina graminifolia
This species is commonly known as bamboo orchid because of it’s thin and tall bamboo like stem. This warm to hot growing monopodial, terrestrial orchid is foundin almost entire Asia including Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Jamaica and Guadeloupe at the elevations of sea level to 1200 meters. 
Flowering Time : May –September.

                                                   Cymbidium aloifolium

                                    Cymbidium aloifolium
Found in the plains of Assam, Bangladesh, eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Andaman Islands , Myanamar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Java , Sumatra and south central Chaina in evergreen and in semi-deciduous and deciduous dry lowland forests at elevations of sea level to 1500 meters. This warm growing epiphyte or lithophyte plant blooms on pendant inflorescence with up to 75 flowers. The flowers are pale yellow with red stripes on petals and sepal. The plant produces four to five leaves per growth.
(Cymbidium aloifolium was the first species of Cymbidium known in Europe which was described by Linnaeus as Epidendrum aloifolium in Species Plantarum in 1753 based on illustrations by Rheede. The drawings were based on a plant collected in southwestern peninsular India growing on a tree of Strychnos nux-vomica.
The plant was transferred to the genus Cymbidium by Swartz in 1799. Because the species was confused with Cymbidium bicolor, Rolfe did a study of the Cymbidium aloifolium and bicolor complex in 1917 and recognized five separate species. Both Cymbidium bicolor and Cymbidium aloifolium grow in similar habitats and colonize in similar niches. They often form extensive root systems on rotting wood. Although their distribution range overlaps, the two species do not seem to hybridize due to the slight difference in flowering seasons.)-Orchids wikia.
Flowering Time : April – June.

                                                 Dendrobium sulcatum
This rare and warm growing epiphyte is found in Assam, Eastern Himalayas, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and south central China in tropical areas at altitudes of 500 to 1000 meters. The flowers are orange yellow with patch of brown nerves on either side at the base. In Lakhimpur District this species is scattered throughout all the R.F.Flowering time : April – August.

                                      Dendrobium lituiflorum
This free flowering pendulous epiphyte orchid is found in the Chinese Himalayas, Assam, Bangladesh, eastern Himalayas, Myanamar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam at elevations around 300 meters. This purple and dark maroon color long lasting , fragrant flower is arises out of the nodes all along the dried cane of previous year. Synonyms : Dendrobium clavatum Wall. 1828; Dendrobium griffithianum Lindl. 1836 var. guibertii [Carriere] Veitch. 
Flowering time : February – March.
                                       Phaious tankervilliae
This broad leaved terrestrial orchid is a warm growing native of southern China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia and the pacific Island at an elevations up to 1300 meters in moist, deep shaded, humid and well watered area. In upper Assam and foothills of Arunachal Pradesh this species is found in moist and shaded condition. Peoples in Assam used this beautiful terrestrial orchid as pot plant. This species has become an invasive species in some countries such as Jamaica and Hawaii. In Papua the smoked flowers are eaten as a contraceptive.
Flowering Time : April-June.

                                       Dendrobium chrysanthum
This warm growing epiphyte and lithophyte species is widespread through the foothills of western and eastern Himalaya, Assam, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam. It is grown in humid, mossy primary, broad-leafed, evergreen lowland forests at an elevation of 350 to 2200 meters. The bright yellow flowers are fleshy with two brownish-purple patches on yellow lip. 
Flowering time : June –October.
                                       Dendrobium aduncum
This slender epiphyte plant is found in Assam, eastern Himalayas, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand,Laos, southern China and Vietnam in Tropical and sub tropical broadleaf, evergreen lowland forests near water or water body at elevations of 300 to 1300 meters. The pale purple flowers arising from the leafless stem at the apex of an older canes in short racemes.
Flowering time : May – July.

    Robiquetia spathulata

This pendent, semi-terete leafed, warm to cool growing epiphyte species is found in Assam, eastern Himalayas, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Combodia, Vietnam, Malaysian peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Philippines,southern China in evergreen riverine lowlands at elevations of 400 to 800 meters. The inflorescence flowers are pendulous and densely many flowered. 
Flowering time : June – August.

                                   Calanthe masuca
This rare terrestrial orchid is found in Assam, Nepal, Sikkim, Chaina and Malayasia in temperate forests at elevations of 2000 to 2800 meters. Most probably today there are more than 100,000 orchid hybrids and every year several thousand more are registered.
But the first flowring hybrid was cross between Calanthe furcata and Calanthe masuca in 1856, performed by Dominy, head gardener of the orchid section of the firm J. Veitch and Sons of Exeter, in England.. Few years ago I had collected few plants of Calanthe masuca from the deep jungle of Assam Arunachal border. 
Flowering Time : June -August.
                                                Dendrobium densiflorum
Found in the foot hills of Arunachal Pradesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Tibet, Hainan and southern Chaina. This beautiful epiphyte or occasional Lithophytes orchid is found in moss covered tree trunks or branches at altitudes of 1100 to 1830 meters. The deep yellow densely flowered racemes are mile scented and lived for a short period.
Flowering time : April – June.
                                             Liparis plantaginea
This species is found in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Sikkim, Thailand and Vietnam. This beautiful and rare tropical terrestrial or epiphytic orchid bears green flowers.The pseudobulbs are covered by leafy sheaths.The plant remains in flower for 20-25 days. Flowering time: June-August.

                               Dendrobium nobile
One of the most beautiful epiphyte or lithophytes dendrobium species found from the Chinese Himalayas, Assam, eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam that is found in tropical evergreen forest and primary montan forest at an elevations of 200 to 2000 meters. Flowers are purplish-white with deep purple color inside the lip.
Flowering time : March – May.

                                              Cymbidium pendulum
Found in Assam, Southern Thailand, Central Malaysia, Vietnam, Borneo, Sumatra and Philippines in lowland forest at an elevations of sealevel to 1630 meters. This hot to cool growing terrestrial or lithophytes is seen almost throughout the plains of Assam.
Flowering time : June-August.

                              Dendrobium chrysotoxum
This rare epiphyte orchid is native of foothills of Assam, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, China, at elevations of 700 to 1100 meters. The long inflorescence arises from apex of the pseudo bulb and it bears deep yellow fragrant flowers.
Flowering time : May.

                              Dendrobium aphyllum
This beautiful epiphyte species is found from Assam, Bangladesh, eastern Himalayas, Maldives Islands, Nepal, western Himalayas, SriLanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi and Queensland Australia in tropical mixed deciduous forests which blooms on the nodes of leafless stems after the leaves have dropped occurring in the late spring. Flowers are pale rose with light yellow pubescent lip.
Flowering time : March-May.

                                 Dendrobium jenkinsii
This miniature species likes tree fern or a piece of cork with extra water. Jenkinsii an intermediate grower, it requires good light and ventilation like most dendrobium . This small epiphytic species is found through the Hainan China, Assam, Eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Myanmar and Laos at elevations of 700 to 1500 meters. It’s common name is Jenkins's Dendrobium [Officer of the East India Trading Co. early 1800's] Synonyms : Callista jenkinsii Kuntze 1891; Dendrobium aggregatum Roxb. var jenkinsii [Wall.]Lindley 1898; Dendrobium marseillei Gagn. 1934.
Flowering time : April – May.

                              Gastrochilus desypogon
This warm growing ,monopodial epiphyte orchid is found in Assam, eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam at elevation of 300 to 1000 meters. This species is spread throughout the entire R.F. of Lakhimpur District.
Flowering Time : June -July.

                               Dendrobium primulinum
This pendent epiphyte orchid is widely distributed from Assam, eastern Himalayas, western Himalayas, Andaman Islands, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Yunnan Chaina to Vietnam. This species is found on deciduous forest at elevations of 500 to 1000 meters. The light pinkish yellow flowers are fragrant which arises from nodes along the leafless can. It needs sufficient sun light.
Flowering time : March – April.

                               Phhalaenopsis mannii
This beautiful orchid is found through the eastern Himalayas, Assam, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar, Vietnam and southern china as a pendulous growing epiphyte in tropical and semi tropical area at elevations of 500 to 1500 meters in humid evergreen forest. It needs shaded condition near streams and rivers. Common Name : Mann's Phalaenopsis [German Orchid Enthusiast 1800's] 
Synonyms : Phalaenopsis boxalli Rchb.f 1883; Polychilos mannii (Rchb. f.) Shim 1982
Flowering Time : April – May.

                               Dendrobium farmeri
This rare pendulous epiphyte species is found in the eastern Himalayas, Assam, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Malaysia in upper tropical and sub-tropical zones at elevations of 150 to 1000 meters on tall trees high up over river course and prefers partial shade and heavy watering. The pinkish and yellowish white flower has orbicular yellow lip. Flowering time : April-May.

                             Phalaenopsis parishii
This miniature epiphyte orchid was first discovered by Rev. C. Parish who sent the dried material to Royal Botanical Gardens in Kew. [English Orchid Collector 1800's - Burma]Found in eastern Himalayas, Assam, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam at elevations up to 500 meters. Flowers are white with brownish-yellow spot on lip.
Flowering Time : March – April.

                                        Eria ferruginea Lindl.
This warm growing epiphyte with a thick creeping rhizome is found in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Khasia , Jyantea Hills and Bhutan at elevations of 800 to 1800 meters. leaves are lanceolate and thickly coriaceous. Flowers are pale white with pink lip.
Common Name :The Rusty Eria [refers to the color of the tomentose inflorescence]
Synonyms: Pinalia ferruginea (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891
Flowering Time : June –July.

                                 Thunia alba
This beautiful and rare Coelogyne-like flower is mostly shade loving species. It is generally terrestrial with a few epiphytes and generally like even watering. The flowers are pure white with yellow and orange-marked lips. Flowers are fragrant. White Thunia if found up to an elevation of 100 to2200 m in NE India, Burma, Thailand , China, Nepal, Bhutan, Andaman Islands, Myanmar, Malaysia and Vietnam.
The common name of this species is white thunia, marshall’s thunia. In Manipur it is known as Takhel lei.
They were once included in the genus Phaius as the flowers do resemble each other, but there are critical differences. There are about 6 recognized valid species.
An interesting aspect of this species is that the canes will decompose in the third year as the rest of the plant absorbs the cane and uses it for nutrients. The canes can also be placed on a bed of sphagnum moss and several plants will be produced from the nodes, but the new plants will not bloom for about 3 years.
Synonyms : Phaius albus Lindl. 1828; Phaius bensoniae Benth. 1881; Phaius niveus Hemsl. 1882; Thunia nivalis (Hemsl.) Rchb.f. 1888 . Thunia marshalliana, Phaius marshallianus, Phajus marshallianus.
Flowering Time : July – August.
                                            Dendrobium moschatum
Common Name: The Musky Smelling Dendrobium.
This species is found in Assam, eastern and western Himalaya, Bangladesh, South India, Nepal, bhutan, Sikkim, Burma, Hainan China, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam at elevations around 300 to 900 meters. The flowers are purplish-yellow, or pinkish-purple and musk scented flowers are last only about a week. In Arunachal Pradesh the stem is used for making baskets.
Flowering Time : June – July.

                                 Eria bractescens
This species is found in the trees in the lawland forest of Assam and it's adjoining hills of Arunachal pradesh,Bangladesh, Eastern Himalaya, Nepal, Andaman Island, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Combodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Bornio, Java, Sumatra and the Philippines at elevations of 20 to 1800 meters. The flowers are white with light yellowish leap.
Flowering Time : March -April.

                              micropera rostrata
This beautiful miniature orchid is found in North East India and Bangladesh at an elevations of 100 to 1200 meters.The recemose inflorescence with fragrant flowers needs a slight winter rest. Flowers are white with light purple color.
Flowering Time : April - May.

                                    Pholidota imbricata
This species is found in almost entire North East India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Bornio, Java,Sumatra, Philippiens,Australia, Indonesia and Yunnan (Chaina).This hot growing epiphyte or lithophyte specie is spread at elevations of sea level to 1700 meters.The long dropping inflorescence a receme, from the base of pseudobulbs carrying upto 50 fragrant flowers.
Common name : rattlesnake orchid.
Flowering Time : June.

                               Papilionanthe teres
This terete leafed epiphyte is found in North East India, Bangladesh,Nepal, Andaman Islands, Myanamar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam at elevations of 500 to 900 m.This sun loving,large, showy, fragrant flowers are pale pink with crimson spot on lip.
Flowering Time : May - June.
Synonyms : Dendrobium teres Roxb. 1832;Papilionanthe teres f. candida (Rchb.f.) Christenson 1994 ; Vanda teres (Roxb.) Lindl. 1833; Vanda teres var. candida Rchb.f 1875
Common name: Cylindrical Vanda.In Manipur it is known as Cheitek lei

Acanthephippium sylhetense Lindl.
This Terrestrial species is found in the foothills of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, Myanmar,Taiwan, Philippines, Malaysia,Thailand in Tropical wet evergreen forest or in woodland at elevations of 400 to 1500 meters.This broad leafed orchid needs direct sun light.The inflorescence arises from new growth with several flehy and fragrant flower.
Synonyms : Acanthephippium ringiflorum ; Acanthephippium sylhetense var. pictum (Fukuy.) ; Acanthephippium yamamotoi Hayata, Acanthephippium pictum Fukuy;Acanthephippium sylhetense var. pictum.
FloweringTime : June -July.

Malaxis acuminata
This warm growing terrestrial orchid has highly medicinal value.It is known as Jivak in Hindi, Jivakam in Tamil and Jivakah in Sanskrit.It is found in some part of dense moist forest floor in Lakhimpur District.This species also found in another North East Part of India, Bangladesh, Lower India, Nepal, western Himalayas, Bhutan,Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, China Vietnam, Java, Sumatra, Andaman Islands, Myanamar The Philippines, and Northern Territories Australia in lowland evergreen broadleaf forests at elevations of sealevel to 1500 meters.Miniature flowers are pale-yellowish green to purple green.
Medicinal uses: It is highly valued for its medicinal properties as dried pseudo-bulbs are important ingredients of several Ayurvedic preparations.The pseudobulbs are sweet, refrigerant, aphrodisiac, febrifuge and tonic. They are useful in haematemesis, fever, seminal weakness, burning sensations, dipsia, emaciation, tuberculosis and general debility.- (flowers of India)
Synonyms : Microstylis biloba Lindl. ; Microstylis carinata ; Microstylis pierrei Finet ; Microstylis trigonocardia Schltr.; Microstylis wallichii Lindl. Achroanthes acuminata ; Crepidium acuminatum ; Crepidium bilobum Dienia carinata ; Malaxis acuminata f. biloba (Lindl.) ; Malaxis acuminata var. biloba (Lindl.) ; Malaxis allanii S.Y.Hu & Barretto 1976; Malaxis biloba (Lindl.) ; Malaxis carinata ; Malaxis pierrei ; Malaxis wallichii ; Microstylis acuminata ;
Flowering Time : June - August.

Cymbidium munronianum
There was no spacific data regarding the availability of this lovely species in Lakhimpur and it’s adjoining area of Arunachal Pradesh. But surprisingly on 18th of April,2010 we have got one living plant in one R.F.of Lakhimpur District.Earlier only two species (Cymbidium aloifolium and Cymbidium pendulaum) were reported from Lakhimpur District.This sweet scented terrestrial orchid is available in some other parts of North East India such as Meghalaya.Generally this species is found in humid forest floor of Tropical Evergreen Forest. However the Worldwide distribution is not known.The Inflorescence is erect with 8-12 flowers.The flowers are purple or light green with purple streak in lip.The flower lasts for about 30 days.
Flowering Time : April-June.

Kingidium deliciosum or Phalaenopsis deliciosa
This broad leafed epiphyte is found in the hills of Lakhimpur -Arunachal border area, Eastern Himalayas, Chinese Himalaya, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, Nepal, Siri lanka, Myanmar, Borneo, Java, the Philippines and Sumatra in riverine forests at elevations from 100 to 600 meters. The flower blooms on an axiliary, racemose, often branching and many flowered inflorescence.
There has some taxonomic dispute regarding the name of this species. Many orchidologist attribute this name to Kingidium decumbens and vice versa, but Kingidium decumbens is a synonym of Phalaenopsis parishii.-(Jay Pfahl’s I.O.S.P.E.)
Synonyms : Kingidium decumben; Doritis philippinensis ;Kingidium philillinensis ;Doritis wightii ; Kingidium deliciosum; Kingidium deliciosum var bellum ; Kingidium philippinenesis [Ames] ; Kingidium wightii [Rchb.f] ; Phalaenopsis alboviolacea ; Phalaenopsis amethystina ; Phalaenopsis bella Teijsm & Binn. ; Phalaenopsis hebe Rchb ; var amboinensis ; Phalaenopsis wightii ; Aerides latifolia ; Doritis hebe ; Doritis latifolia ; Kingiella philippinensis [Ames] ; Kingiella steffensii. 
Flowering Time : June - july.

Aerides multiflora or Aerides multiflorum
This beautiful scented epiphytic orchid is found in almost all R.F. of Lakhimpur and it’s adjoining hills of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas, Nepal, western Himalayas, Andaman Islands, Cambodia, Vietnam , Myanamar, Bangladesh,Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam in tropical and semi tropical wet evergreen foreast at an elevations of 100 to1200 meters.The flowere inflorescence is waxy and fragrant.The Rose-pink flowers are carried in long-lasting, hanging sprays.
Synonyms : Aerides lobbii ; Aerides trigona ; Aerides veitchi R.H. Torr. ; Epidendrum geniculatum Hook.
Flowering Time : May - July.

Dendrobium Transparens
One of the most beautiful and free flowering dendrobium species found in only some part of Lakhimpur district.This epiphytic species also found in dense wet forest of western himalaya, Bhutan, Nepal and Myanmar at elevations of 200 to1600 meters.The sape of this species is more or less same with D.lituflorum, but only the colour of the leap is maroon.The sepal and petal is almost white or transparent.
Flowering Time : April - May.

Rhynchostylis retusa “Alba”
One of the most uncommon and rare genus of fragrant flower.The inflorescence is a hanging like "Rhynchostylis retusa" with many fragrant white flowers. Multiple spikes are typical.Some orchodolist says that this is the rare albino form of this very fragrant ”fox tail” species.This species found in some part of lakhimpur district and Dibru soikhua.However the world wide distribution is not known.
Flowering Time : March -April.

                                            Eria paniculata

                                           Eria paniculata

This miniature species is found in tropical and semi tropical evergreen forest of lakhimpur district,Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Bhutan,Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam at elevations of 500 to 1600 meters.The stems are closed, teret and drooping.Leaves are many, linear and fleshy.Inflorescence a raceme and many flowered. Flowers are greenish with purple spotted sepals. 
Synonyms : Mycaranthes monostachya (Lindl.) ; Pinalia monostachya (Lindl.)
Flowering Time : December.

                                               Liparis viridiflora
Found in the hills of Assam Arunachal border, Nepal, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sumatra, Java,Vietnam, China, Laos, Thailand, Combodia, Taiwan,the philippines and New Guinea in broadleaf tropical evergreen forest at elevation of 200 to 2400 merers. Racemose inflorescence is pendulum with greenish yellow flower.
Synonyms : Liparis pendula Lindl; Liparis boothii ; Liparis longipes ; Liparis spathulata Lindl.; Liparis triloba.
Flowering Time : December-January.

(The color and quality of this photograph is poor, as the photograph was taken about 12 years ago with a viviter SLR camera.)    

Calanthe lyroglossa
This rare species is found in eastern Asia, including China, Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Taiwan etc.  But there has no record of this orchid in Assam.About 12 years ago I have collected one plant from Dullung reserve forest.After that I could not found this species anywhere in this area.But recently I have seen two plants on Dullung R.F.
    Nobody has reported this orchid from Assam.If any one has data of reporting this orchid from Assam kindly inform me. My E-mail : or 
Synonyms : calanthe longibracteata 
Flowering Time : summer

Epipogium roseum . Lindl

This erect, leafless, saprophytic terrestrial orchid is found in eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Bhutan, lower India,  western Himalayas,Ghana, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Kenya, Uganda, Angola, Taiwan, Malaysia, Java, the Philippines, Sumatra, Papua New Guinea, Queensland and New South Wales Australia, Fiji, Zaire;Myanamar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam,Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Japan in tropical, evergreen, humid, forests at elevations of 100 to 2000 meters.I have found this saprophytic orchid in one R.F.of Assam -Arunachal border about twelve years ago. 
Synonyms : Epipogium sessanum S.N.Hegde & A.N.Rao 1982;Epipogium sinicum ; Epipogium tuberosum ; Galera kusukusensis ; Galera nutans ; Galera rolfei ; Galera rosea ; Gastrodia schinziana ; Limodorum roseum ; Stereosandra schinziana ;Ceratopsis rosea Lindl.; Epipogium africanus Schltr. ; Epipogium dentilabellum Ohtani & S.Suzuki ; Epipogium guilfoylei ; Epipogium kassnerianum Kraenzl. ; Epipogium kusukusense ; Epipogon makinoanus ; Epipogium nutans ; Epipogium nutans var celebicus ; Epipogium pooneranthum ; Epipogium rolfei (Hayata) ;  
Flowering Time :April - June

Mecrotis parviflora
This terrestrial orchid was found in one reserve forest of Lakhimpur District of Assam Arunachal border few weeks ago.This orchid bears tinny yellow flower.There was no previous record of this orchid in this area.This species also distributed in few countries of South East Asia.World wide distribution is not known.
Synonyms : calanthe longibracteata.
Flowering Time : February - March.

Ephemerantha macraei
This species with creeping rootstock is found  the eastern Himalayas, India, Nepal, Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands, , Chinese Himalayas, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, China, Borneo, Penninsular Malaysia ,Sumatra, Java, and the Philippines on open rocks or tree near streams and rivers in  evergreen and semi-evergreen deciduous forests at elevations of 300 to 3500 meters . E. macraei is used extensively in Indian traditional medicine.The white flowers are sweetly scented and short-lived and lateral lobes marked with purple spots. 
Synonyms : Dendrobium macraei , Flickingeria macraei, Flickingeria fimbriata, Callista macraei, Dendrobium binnendijkii, Dendrobium flabellum, Dendrobium insulare, Dendrobium kunstleri, Desmotrichum kunstleri, Flickingeria binnendijkii , Flickingeria kunstleri
  Flowering Time : April -May

 Calanthe triplicata
 This is one of the most beautiful terrestrial orchid.There has no recent report of this orchid in Lakhimpur district and its adjoining hills of Arunachal pradesh.In Australlia it is called The Christmas Orchid.This species is also found in   eastern Himalayas, lower India, Sri Lanka, Myanamar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, south China, Vietnam, Borneo, Java , Philippines,umatra, New Guinea, New South Wales, Queensland Australia, Fiji,  Santa Cruz Islands,  Mauritus, Madagascar and Taiwan in humid, primary forests with rich in humus soil and shady conditions at elevations of 300 to 1200 meters.Flowers are pure white with yellow spot on lip.
Synonyms : Alismorchis veratrifolia ; Amblyglottis veratrifolia ; Bletia quadrifida ; Calanthe angraeciflora ; Calanthe bracteosa ; Calanthe brevicolumna ; Calanthe catilligera  ; Calanthe celebica ; Calanthe comosa ; Calanthe corymbosa ; Calanthe diploxiphion ; Calanthe furcata ;Alismorchis angraeciflora ; Alismorchis diploxiphion ; Alismorchis furcata ; Alismorchis gracillima , Calanthe furcata ;Calanthe gracillima ; Calanthe megalophora ; Calanthe millotae ; Calanthe nephroglossa ; Calanthe orthocentron ; Calanthe perrottetii; Calanthe proboscidea ; Calanthe pubescens ; Calanthe rubicallosa ;  Calanthe triplicata var. angraeciflora ; Calanthe triplicata var. gracillima ; Calanthe veratrifolia ; Limodorum veratrifolium ; Orchis triplicata ; Paracalanthe megalophora
Flowering Time : April -May

                                         Erea Flava
This species is very common in Lakhimpur District and is found on the tree trunks in the tropical zone.Flowers are fragrant and greenish yellow,with purple spoot on lip.Synonyms : Callostylis rigida. Flowering Time : March -April. 

                                        Dendrobium parishii
Common name : Parish's Dendrobium [English Misionary and Collector 1800's]
This eye catching epiphytic species is found in some part of North East India,Hainan China, Myanamar, Thailand,Bangladesh, Laos and Vietnam in broadleaf, tropical and semi tropical evergreen forests at an altitude of 200 to 1500 meters.Nawadays it is very rare in Lakhimpur District and it's adjoining hills of Arunachal Pradesh. 2 to 3 flowered raceme with fragrant flowers are borne at the nodes on the 2 year old leafless canes. Some shade and plenty of water is needed at the time of growing .Flowers are purpule with blckish spot on the lip.Synonyms : Callista parishii ; Callista rhodopterygia ; Dendrobium polyphlebium ; Dendrobium rhodopterygium. 
Flowering Time : April -May.

                                        Thrixspermum centipeda
This orchid is found in kakoi Reserve Forest of Lakhimpur District, some parts of Eastern Himalaya, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Java, Borneo and the Philippines in tropical ever green Forest  at elevations of 100 to 1200 meters .The epiphytic miniature flower is white. The fragrant flower is  last for only 2 to 3 days.
Synonyms : Sarcochilus centipede; Thrixspermum papillosum;  Sarcochilus hainanensis; Thrixspermum auriferum; Epidendrum thrixspermum; Dendrocolla arachnites.
Flowering Time: June -July

                                            Luisia teretifolia
Members of the genus has 40 species,which are found in entire tropical South East Asia.The common name of this genus is  “Bee orchid”.This miniature epiphytic orchid is found in all reserve forest of Lakhimpur District and it’s adjoining hills of Arunachal Pradesh,North East India,Sri Lanka, Bangladesh,Nepal, western Himalayas, Andaman Islands, Myanamar,New Guinea,Malaysia, Vietnam, Northern Territory and Queensland of Australia, Fiji, Thailand, Java,and the Philippinesas at an altitudes of 100 to 1400 meters. This monopodial genus bear terete leaves. The Flowers are drooping, yellow to yellow green with wine red to maroon labellum, margin sometimes yellow or green.The labellum is fleshy and rigid.Usually there has no spur at the base of the labellum.Still today there has some controversy of naming and indantification of different species of Luisia.
Synonyms : Luisia tristis ; Luisia truncata ; Luisia valida ; Luisia zeylandica; Luisia platyglossa ; Epidendrum triste ; Luisia beccarii ; Luisia brachystachys ; Luisia burmanica ; Luisia macrocarpa ; Luisia occidentalis .
Flowering Time : May -June.

                                         Malaxis Latifolia in it's natural habitate

  Malaxis Latifolia

This broad leaved terrestrial orchid is found in the kakoi Reserve Forest of Lakhimpur District, Chinese Himalayas, Thailand, Laos, Casmbodia, Vietnam, Borneo, Bangladesh,  Nepal, Bhutan, Java, Sumatra, Malaysia,Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Andaman Islands, Myanamar,   Philippines, New Guinea and Queensland Australia in the tropical evergreen forest at an elevation of 300 to 1200 meters.The flower produces a dense raceme made up of hundreds of  purplish red long-lasting flowers with pale yellow lip.
Synonyms : Malaxis ophrydis; Epidendrum ophrydis;Liparis bernaysii ; Liparis krempfii ; Liparis turfosa ;  Malaxis congesta ; Malaxis curranii ; Malaxis finetii ; Malaxis kizanensis ; Malaxis latifolia var. nana ;  Malaxis plicata Roxb. ; Microstylis bernaysii ; Microstylis carnosula ; Microstylis congesta  ; Microstylis kizanensis ; Spiranthes plantaginea
Flowering Time :June July

                               Geodorum purpurum in it's natural habitate

                               Geodorum purpurum
This species is found in the open sandy and grassy lands in tropical and semi-tropical belt at an elevation from 100 to 1200 meters.The plant is about 30-40cm high with plicate broad leaves.The fragrant flowers are white with fleshy suffused pale pink leap.This species is found widely all over the reserve forest of Lakhimpur District.
Flowering Time : June -July.

                               Cleisostoma racemiferum 

                                                  Cleisostoma racemiferum 
This species is  found in kakoi and dullung reserve forest of lakhimpur district.Worl wide distribution is :- Nepal, China, Myanamar,Sikkim, Bhutan,  Thailand, Laos and Vietnam at elevations 300 to 1850 meters .This warm growing miniature epiphyte orchid is erect or pendulous and  blooms in the summer on an axillary, ascending, slender, paniculate, many branched, many flowered inflorescence.
Synonyms: Aerides racemiferum ; Sarcanthus racemiferum ; Sarcanthus yunnanensis ;Cleisostoma chrysomelas  ; Sarcanthus chrysomelas ; Sarcanthus lorifolius ; Sarcanthus manlinensis ; Sarcanthus pallidus.
Flowering : Time:June -July

                                             Phaius tankervilliae ver. alba
This teristerial and bulbus species is almost semiler with Phaious tankervilliae; but the size of the plant is larger than the P.tankervilliae.This species is generally grown in the moist tropical forest of high altitude.
Flowering Time : May -June.

                                            Cleisostoma subulatum 

This small pendulus epiphyte orchid is found  Assam, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sikkim, Myanamar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysian peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Borneo and the Philippines in lowlands at elevations of 2500 to 400 meters with, pendulous, fleshy and rigid acuminate leaves that blooms on an unbranched  and densely  flowered inflorescence .
Synonyms : Cleisostoma amabile ; Sarcanthus oxyphyllus ;  Sarcanthus subulatus ;Cleisostoma dealbatum ; Cleisostoma secundum ;  Cypripedium linearisubulatum ;  Sarcanthus amabilis ; Sarcanthus dealbatus.
Flowering Time : June July

                                             Acampe regida

                                 Acampe regida
Common name: Button orchid.
This species is found in almost all reserve forest of Lakhimpur district. Once it was abundant in dulling reserve forest. This hot growing epiphyte is also found in china Taiwan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Myanamar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia and the Philippines in tropical valleys at elvations of 250 to 700 meters.the plant is used in some traditional medicine.
Synonyms: Acampe longifolia; Acampe intermedia; Acampe multiflora; Acampe penangiana ; Vanda longifolia; Vanda multiflora; Vanda viminea; Aerides rigida; Gastrochilus longifolius; Saccolabium longifolium.
Flowering Time : June-August.  

                                             Cleisocentron pallens
                                        Cleisocentron pallens

This species is found in almost entire reserve forest of Lakhimpur district and in some part of eastern himilaya  and  Sikkim at elevations of 200 to 650 meters. This hot growing epiphyte with narrow oblong leaves blooms in the summer on evergreen and semi evergreen forest. Flowers are pale straw-coloured, pinkish in the middle.
Synonyms: Cleisocentron trichromum; Gastrochilus trichromus; Saccolabium pallens; Saccolabium
Flowering time:July-August

                                          Eria Pumila
                                         Eria Pumila

This miniature warm growing epiphytic orchid was collected from the Assam Arunachal border of kakoi reserve forest.There has no pacific reporting data of this species from other parts of the Lakhimpur District.This orchid is also found in Eastern Himalaya,Bhutan,Sikkim and Myanmar at elevations of 200 to 1500 meters.   
Flowering Time in Assam :June-July.


                                              Tainia lotifolia

                                           Tainia lotifolia

This broad leafed and creeping rhizomes terrestrial species is found in Assam, Eastern Himalayas, Thailand, Myanamar, Java, Sumatra, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China and Taiwan in tropical forest at elevations from 500 to 1600 meters. Inflorescences develop at the base of the pseudo bulbs and may reach about 1 m. This plant prefers intermediate temperatures, moderate shading, high humidity and good air movement during the growing season.-(source I.C.O.S.P.E. by :J.Phafl)
 In Lakhimpur district this species is found in the moist and humus field forest floor of  Dullung and Ranga reserve forest. Sepals and petals of the flowers are purplish-brown, and lip is yellow.
 Ania latifolia Lindl. 1831; Cymbidium fuscescens Griff. 1851; Eria angulata Rchb.f. 1872;Eulophia hastata Lindl. 1859;Tainia cordata Hook.f. 1890; Tainia elliptica Fukuy. 1935; Tainia elongata J.J.Sm. 1910; Tainia hastata (Lindl.) Hook.f. 1890; Tainia hologlossa (E.C.Parish & Rchb.f.) Benth. ex Hookf.. 1890; Tainia khasiana Hook.f.1890; Tainia latifolia subsp elongata [J.J.Sm.] H Turner 1992;-(source I.C.O.S.P.E. by :J.Phafl) 
Flooring Time in Assam : March-April. 

                                       Dendrobium ramosum

                                 Dendrobium ramosum

This fragrant and tiny dendrobium is found in Assam, eastern Himalayas and Myanamar, at elevations of 200 to 1500 meters.This warm growing epiphyte bears 1 to 2 flowered inflorescence which is arises from the nodes near the apex of the stem .The purple color shade on the lip is eye catching.At present this species has become quite rare and found in only some part of lakhimpur district.
    Synonyms: Callista ramosa Kuntze 1891; Callista ruckeri (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Dendrobium ramosum Lindl. 1830
Flowring Time in Assam : March - April

                                              Goodyera procera 

                                          Goodyera procera 

Goodyera procera is found in China, Japan and Taiwan in wet montane forests.This teristerial
orchid is abandoned in almost all reserve forest of lakhimpur district.
Synonyms : Epipactis pendula (Maxim.) A.A.Eaton 1908; Peramium pendulum (Maxim.) Makino 1929
Flowring time : Feb - March.

                             Goodyera Hispida

        This miniature orchid is terrestrial, lithophyte or epiphyte,which is found in Assam, Eastern Himalayas, India, Bhutan, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam. It's ideal habitat is lowland broadleaf evergreen forests at elevations of 150 to 2200 meters in deep shade and high humidity area.This species is very rare in Lakhimpur district.Once only one plant was found in Jiadhol reserve of Dhemaji district.
Flowring time : Not yet known. 

                                        Arachnis labrosa or Renanthera bilinguis

Found in Assam ,Bhutan, Sikkim, Eastern Himalayas, Myanamar, Thailand, Vietnam, Hainan and Yunnan China to Taiwan on trunks of large trees and on rocks at elevations of 600 to 1700 meters. This monopodial epiphyte or lithophyte species blooms with up to 10, distant flowers on an axillary, racemose to sometimes branching and pendant inflorescence.
      In Lakhimpur District it is found in some limited area of Assam Arunachal border of Ranga reserve forest.
Synonyms : Arachnanthe bilinguis Benth. 1881; Arachnis bilinguis Benth. 1881; Armodorum labrosum (Lindl. ex Paxton) Schltr. 1911; Arrhynchium labrosum Lindl. ex Paxton 1850; Renanthera bilinguis Rchb. f. 1854; Renanthera leptantha Fukuy. ex A.T.Hsieh, 1955
Flowering Time in Assam : March - April

                                                Spiranthes sinensis

                                                     Spiranthes sinensis

 This species is found in Eastern Russia, western Siberia, eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Korea, China, Taiwan, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, western Himalayas, Pakistan, Assam,Sri Lanka, eastrern Himalayas, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanamar, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaysia, Sumatra, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Philippines, Australia and New Zealand etc.This medium sized, cool to hot growing terrestrial species is found on grassy areas, open forests and upland bogs at elevations of 100 to 2000 meters.
One plant was recorded in Jia Dhol reserve forest of Dhemaji District on March,2012.
 This species and Spiranthes spiralis are considered to be synomonous.
 Flowering Time in Assam : March - April 

                                         Bulbophyllum auratum

This umbel type fragrant flower is found in Malaysia,Thailand,Borneo,Sumatra,Philippines and north east india at elevation around 100 to 1200 meters. A hot to warm growing species that needs partial shade, high humidity and good air circulation.
In Lakhimpur district it is found in only some limited area of Ranga Reserve forest.
Synonyms : Bulbophyllum borneense (Schltr.) J.J. Sm. 1907; Bulbophyllum campanulatum [Rolfe]Rolfe 1909; *Cirrhopetalum auratum Lindley 1840; Cirrhopetalum borneense Schltr.
Flowering Time : April

                                                       Stereochilus hirtus

                                             Stereochilus hirtus

Stereochilus hirtus Lindley (1859)’ is a small size monopodial epiphyte of the tribe Vandeae, subtribe Aeridinae.This species is found in Assam,eastern Himalayas,Sikkim and Myanmar at elevations from 175 to 700 meters.
     It’s name means “the hirsute stereochilus” owing to the haired appearance of the plant and pedicel(hirsute is a type of indumentums-a covering of fine hairs on a plant.)S.hirtus and S.erinaceus are similar species which are often confused for one another,though S.hirtus can be identified by the lack of hairs on the sepal and petals of the flower.-orchid board.
    This species is very rare. We have recorded only one plant in Dullung reserve forest in the month of April,2012 
 Synonyms : Sarcanthus hirtus (Lindl.) T. Tang & F.T. Wang 1951; Sarcanthus hirtus (Lindl.) J.J. Sm. 1912; Sarcochilus hirtulus Hook. f. 1890; Thrixspermum hirtulum (Hook.f.) Kuntze 1891
Flowering Time : May

 Miniature Arundina species reported for the first time from North East India by      Bhaskar Bora and Ritu Sonowal.

Bhaskar Bora with the miniature Arundina

Ritu Sonowal with the miniature Arundina

Arundina Graminifolia var Minor ?

This miniature Arundina species was found  on a hill slope of thick jungle of Assam Arunachal border on April,2012.
We had made contract with Mr.Jay pfahl,one of the world's noted orchidologist.

Jay pfahl's reply :-

Hi Bhaskar
It is the consensus of the Taxonomic community that all Arundina are the same species regardless of size of plant, shape of flower [with or without a trumpet-shaped lip or 3 to 5 keels on the lip] or colors of the flower. That said yours is very different and I AM GOING TO SEND the photo OFF FOR ANOTHER OPINION. For now call it Arundina graminifolia var minor a type found originally in  Sri Lanka
Happy orchid hunting

                                           Pholidota articulata 

                                      Pholidota articulata 

This fragrant epiphytic species found in Assam, eastern Himalayas, Nepal, western Himalayas, India, Tibet, China, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Borneo, Java,  and Sumatra  at altitudes of 300 to 2000 meters It blooms on a slender, drooping fractiflex inflorescence .
This species is common in almost all the reserve forest of Lakhimpur district of Assam.
Synonyms : Coelogyne articulata ; Coelogyne griffithii ; Coelogyne khasyana ; Pholidota khasiyana 
Flowering Time : July.

                                           Ceratostylis philippinensis 

There has no specific record of this species from India or Assam.This fragrant species is found in only some part of ranga reserve forest of Lakhimpur District.
For further details please see-

If some one has any record of this species from Lakhimpur or from another part please contract us.
E.mail :   

Flowering Time : July  

                                                Zeuxine strateumatica

Zeuxine is a large genus of about 80 orchids belonging to the subfamily Orchidoideae. The members are mostly found to grow in wet grasslands. In India it is represented by 11 species (Hooker, 1894)
 This species is found in some parts of Grassland of Lakhimpur District.
Flowering Time : February - March

                                Collabium bicameratum
                               Collabium bicameratum

(Photograph By : Bhaskar Bora)